Journal Information
Vol. 14. Issue 1.
Pages 23-30 (January - February 2000)
Vol. 14. Issue 1.
Pages 23-30 (January - February 2000)
Open Access
Hábito de fumar, exposición al tabaco y síntomas respiratorios en la población escolar de 14–15 años de Terrassa (Barcelona)
Visits
5721
A. Agudo Trigueros1,
Corresponding author
agudo@csm.scs.es

Correspondencia: IREC (Institut de Recerca Epidemiològica i Clínica). C/ Jordi Joan, 5. 08301 Mataró.
, T. Garrich Aumatell2, D. Heras Fortuny3, D. Porras Cano4, A. Sánchez García5
1 IREC (Institut de Recerca Epidemiològica i Clínica), Mataró
2 CAP Terrassa Nord
3 CAP Rambla. Terrassa
4 CAP Ca'n Oriac. Sabadell
5 CAP Sant Felix. Sabadell
This item has received

Under a Creative Commons license
Article information
Abstract
Bibliography
Download PDF
Statistics
Resumen
Objetivos

Estudio de la prevalencia del hábito de fumar, la exposición pasiva al humo del tabaco, y los síntomas y los antecedentes relacionados con el asma en la población escolar de 14-15 años de Terrassa (Barcelona).

Métodos

En total 793 alumnos de 21 escuelas de Terrassa respondieron un cuestionario que incluía información sobre el hábito de fumar, la exposición ambiental al tabaco, factores del entorno familiar y personal, síntomas respiratorios y antecedentes de asma.

Resultados

La prevalencia de fumadores habituales (diariamente) fue del 16,3% (13,7–18,9), similar en ambos sexos. La edad, el hábito de los amigos y de la madre y tener hermanos mayores se asociaron de manera independiente al hábito de fumar. Durante el último año el 13% de los escolares presentaron sibilancia y 20,3% tos nocturna. El hábito de fumar diariamente y la exposición pasiva al tabaco se asociaron positivamente a la prevalencia de síntomas pero no al diagnóstico previo de asma.

Conclusiones

Se observa cierta estabilización del hábito de fumar en los adolescentes, con tendencia a una mayor prevalencia en el sexo femenino. La presencia de tabaco en el entorno social y familiar se asocia a la presencia del hábito de fumar regularmente en los adolescentes. Tanto el hábito activo como la exposición pasiva al tabaco se asocian a un incremento de la sintomatología relacionada con el asma.

Palabras clave:
Prevalencia
Adolescentes
Hábito de fumar
Exposición ambiental al tabaco
Asma
Summary
Objectives

Assessment of the prevalence of smoking habits, environmental tobacco exposure, and asthma-related symptoms in a cross-sectional study in schoolchildren aged 14–15 years in Terrassa (Barcelona).

Methods

A sample of 793 students from 21 schools answered a self-administered questionnaire including information on smoking habits, environmental tobacco exposure and asthma-related symptoms.

Results

The prevalence of smoking daily was 16.3% (CI 13.7–18.9); no difference between sexes were observed, while the proportion of occasional smokers was higher among girls. Age, maternal habit, friend's smoking habit and having older siblings were independently associated to the schoolchildren's smoking habits. Overall, 13% reported a positive history of wheezing and 20.3% of nocturnal cough during the previous year. Smoking daily and passive smoking were positively associated with the prevalence of asthma-related symptoms, but not with previous diagnosis of asthma.

Conclusions

The prevalence of smoking among adolescents seems to have levelled off. There is some trend toward a higher prevalence among girls than among boys. The presence of smoking in the social environment is a strong predictor of the smoking habits among schoolchildren. Both active smoking and environmental exposure to tobacco smoke are associated to increased asthma-related symptoms.

Key words:
Prevalence
Adolescence
Smoking habits
Tobacco smoke pollution
Asthma
Full text is only aviable in PDF
Bibliografía
[1.]
J. Foulds, C. Godfrey.
Counting costs of children's smoking.
BMJ, 311 (1995), pp. 1152-1154
[2.]
N. Breslau, E.L. Peterson.
Smoking cessation in yound adults: age at initiation of cigarette smoking and other suspected influences.
Am J Public Health, 86 (1996), pp. 214-220
[3.]
E.A. Gilpin, L. Lee, N. Evans, J.P. Pierce.
Smoking initiation rates in adults and minors: United States, 1944–1988.
Am J Epidemiol, 140 (1994), pp. 535-543
[4.]
M. Nebot.
Los jóvenes y el tabaco: ¿podemos ser optimistas?.
Gac Sanit, 5 (1991), pp. 111-113
[5.]
M. Murray, S. Kiryluk, A.V. Swan.
Relation between parent's and children's smoking behaviour and attitudes.
J Epidemiol Community Health, 39 (1995), pp. 169-174
[6.]
J. Aubà, J.R. Villalbí.
Tabaco y adolescentes: influencia del entorno personal.
Med Clin (Barc), 100 (1993), pp. 506-509
[7.]
M.R. Sears.
Epidemiology of childhood asthma.
Lancet, 350 (1997), pp. 1015-1020
[8.]
M.I. Asher.
ISAAC phase one: Worlwide variations in the prevalence of wheezing and asthma in children.
Eur Respir J, 9 (1996), pp. 410S
[9.]
J.J. Stoddard, T. Miller.
Impact of parental smoking on the prevalence of wheezing respiratory illnes in children.
Am J Epidemiol, 141 (1995), pp. 96-102
[10.]
Joves: hàbits i drogues. Consum de tabac, alcohol i altres drogues en estudiants de secundària 1993–95. Terrassa. Ajuntament de Terrassa; 1996.
[11.]
E. Comín, R. Torrubia, J. Mor, J.R. Villalbí, M. Nebot.
Fiabilidad de un cuestionario autoadministrado para investigar el nivel de ejercicio y el consumo de tabaco y de alcohol entre escolares.
Med Clin (Barc), 108 (1997), pp. 293-298
[12.]
A. Agudo, S. Bardagí, P.V. Romero, C.A. González.
Exercise-induced airway narrowing and exposure to environmental tobacco smoke in schoolchidren.
Am J Epidemiol, 140 (1994), pp. 409-417
[13.]
E. Riboli, S. Preston-Martín, R. Saracci, et al.
Exposure of nonsmoking women to environmental tobacco smoke: a 10-country collaborative study.
Cancer Causes Control, 1 (1990), pp. 243-252
[14.]
M.I. Asher, U. Keil, H.R. Anderson, et al.
International study of asthma and allergies in childhood (ISAAC): rationale and methods.
Eur Respir J, 8 (1995), pp. 483-491
[15.]
M.A. Jenkins, J.R. Clarke, J.B. Carlin, et al.
Validation of questionnaire and bronchial hyperresponsiveness against respiratory physician assessment in the diagnosis of asthma.
Int J Epidemiol, 25 (1996), pp. 609-616
[16.]
C. Rumeau-Rouquette, G. Bréart, R. Padieu.
Méthodes en épidémilogie.
Flammarion, (1981),
[17.]
P. Armitage.
Statistical methods in medical research.
Wiley & Sons, (1971),
[18.]
D.W. Hosmer, S. Lemeshow.
Applied logistic regression.
Wiley & Sons, (1989),
[19.]
J.R. Villalbí, M. Nebot, M. Ballestín.
Los adolescentes ante las sustancias adictivas: tabaco, alcohol y drogas no institucionalizadas.
Med Clin (Barc), 104 (1995), pp. 784-788
[20.]
C. Ariza, M. Nebot.
Factores asociados al consumo de tabaco en una muestra de escolares de enseñanza primaria y secundaria.
Gac Sanit, 9 (1995), pp. 101-109
[21.]
R. Pérez, J. Pérez.
Prevalencia y consumo de tabaco, alcohol, actitudes y creencias en estudiantes de bachillerato de la provincia de Tarragona (España).
An Esp Pediatr, 45 (1996), pp. 583-590
[22.]
J.R. Villalbí, M. Nebot, E. Comín, C. Murillo.
Consumo precoz de tabaco en escolares.
Rev San Hig Pub, 64 (1990), pp. 613-623
[23.]
E. Comín, M. Nebot, J.R. Villalbí.
Exercici i consum de tabac i alcohol dels escolars de Barcelona.
Gac Sanit, 3 (1989), pp. 355-365
[24.]
J.M. Goicoechea, J. Panella, E. Portella.
Características del tabaquismo en el medio escolar en Andorra.
Gac Sanit, 6 (1992), pp. 122-127
[25.]
R. Vallescar, V. Moreno, J. Sarquella, S. Vilar, M. Martín.
Consumo de tabaco de la comarca de La Garrotxa. Estudio comparativo 1982–1986.
Gac Sanit, 5 (1991), pp. 125-129
[26.]
M.T. Muñoz, I. Plaza, R. Madero, D. López, J. Otero, Hidalgo, et al.
Estudio de Fuenlabrada: Hábito tabáquico en niños y adolescentes. Influencia sobre las variables de riesgo cardiovascular.
An Esp Pediatr, 31 (1989), pp. 331-335
[27.]
A. Charlton, D. White.
Smoking among secondary schoolchildren.
BMJ, 311 (1995), pp. 265
[28.]
M. Osler, J. Clausen, K.K. Ibsen, G. Jensen.
Maternal smoking during childhood and increased risk of smoking in young adulthood.
Int J Epidemiol, 24 (1995), pp. 710-714
[29.]
A.V. Swan, R. Creeser, M. Murray.
When and why children first start to smoke.
Int J Epidemiol, 19 (1990), pp. 323-330
[30.]
E. Díaz, J.R. Villalbí, M. Nebot, Aubà, F. Sanz.
El inicio del consumo de tabaco en escolares: estudio transversal y longitudinal de los factores predictivos.
Med Clin (Barc), 110 (1998), pp. 334-339
[31.]
R.M. Busquets, J.M. Antó, J. Sunyer, N. Sancho, O. Vall.
Prevalence of asthma-related symptoms and bronchial responsiveness to exercise in children aged 13–14 years in Barcelona, Spain.
Eur Respir J, 9 (1996), pp. 2094-2098
[32.]
A. Pereira, J.A. Maldonado, J.L. Sánchez, J. Grávalos, E. Pujol, M. Gómez.
Síntomas respiratorios en población infantil.
Arch Bronconeumol, 31 (1995), pp. 383-388
[33.]
A. Egea, L. Millán, C. Casas, J.L. Madrazo.
Prevalencia de asma en la población infantil de Sevilla.
An Esp Pediatr, 40 (1994), pp. 284-286
[34.]
J. Sanz, A. Martorell, V. Álvarez, et al.
Epidemiologic study of risk factors associated with the development of respiratory pathology in children.
An Esp Pediatr, 32 (1990), pp. 389-398
[35.]
B. Kaur, H.R. Anderson, J. Austin, M. Burr, L.S. Harkins, D.P. Strachan, J.O. Warner.
Prevalence of asthma symptoms, diagnosis, and treatment in 12–14 year old children across Great Britain (international study of asthma and allergies in childhood, ISAAC UK).
BMJ, 316 (1998), pp. 118-124
[36.]
H.C. Siersted, J. Boldsen, H.S. Hansen, G. Mostgaard, N. Hyldebrand.
Population based study of risk factors for underdiagnosis of asthma in adolescence: Odense schoolchild study.
BMJ, 316 (1998), pp. 651-657
[37.]
D.P. Strachan, B.K. Butland, H.R. Anderson.
Incidence and prognosis of asthma and wheezing illness from early childhood to age 33 in a national British cohort.
BMJ, 312 (1996), pp. 1195-1199
[38.]
L. Larson.
Incidence os asthma in Swedish teenagers: relation to sex and smoking habits.
Thorax, 50 (1995), pp. 260-264
[39.]
T.H. Lam, S.F. Chung, C.L. Betson, C.M. Wong, A.J. Hedley.
Respiratory symptoms due to active and passive smoking in junior secondary school students in Hong Kong.
Int J Epidemiol, 27 (1998), pp. 41-48
Copyright © 2000. Sociedad Española de Salud Pública y Administración Sanitaria
Idiomas
Gaceta Sanitaria
Article options
Tools
es en

¿Es usted profesional sanitario apto para prescribir o dispensar medicamentos?

Are you a health professional able to prescribe or dispense drugs?