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Vol. 35. Núm. S1.
The 1st International Conference on Safety and Public Health
Páginas S90-S93 (Enero 2021)
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The effect of multiple role conflicts and work stress on the work performance of female employees
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Masyitha Muisa,
Autor para correspondencia
, M. Furqaan Nai’ema, Andi Arsunan Arsinb, A. Muflihah Darwisa, Yahya Thamrina, Nurul Anniza Putri Hansa
a Department of Occupational Safety and Health, Faculty of Public Health, Hasanuddin University, Makassar, Indonesia
b Department of Epidemiology, Faculty of Public Health, Hasanuddin University, Makassar, Indonesia
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Tablas (5)
Table 1. Distribution of respondents based on characteristics of female employees at BNI Makassar Regional Branch Office in 2020.
Table 2. Distribution of respondents’ assessment of multiple role conflict, job stress, and performance female employees at BNI Makassar Regional Branch Office in 2020.
Table 3. The effect of multiple role conflict on employee performance employees at BNI Makassar Regional Branch office in 2020.
Table 4. Effect of job stress on employee performance employees at BNI Makassar Regional Branch office in 2020.
Table 5. ANOVAa.
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Vol. 35. Núm S1

The 1st International Conference on Safety and Public Health

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Abstract
Objective

To determine the effect of multiple role conflicts and work stress on the work performance of female employees at the BNI branch office in Makassar in 2020.

Method

This type of research used an analytical observational study with a cross-sectional study design. The research was conducted at the BNI Makassar Regional Office in 2020.

Results

The results showed that there was an effect of multiple role conflicts with employee performance, p-value=0.014 (p<0.05), there was no effect of job stress on employee performance, p-value=0.227 (p>0.05), and conflict variables. Multiple roles and job stress have a significant effect on female employee performance, p-value=0.048 (p<0.05).

Conclusions

There is an influence of dual role conflict and work stress on the work performance of female employees at the BNI Makassar Regional Office in 2020.

Keywords:
Multiple roles
Work performance
Work stress
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Introduction

Currently, employment is not only dominated by men, but women have also been doing work that is usually done by only men. According to World Bank data, globally the female labor force participation rate has increased, although not very high. The percentage of female workers per regional country on average exceeds 50%. From 1990–2005, the labor force participation rate increased by 0.61%. In 2006, it decreased by 0.082% from the previous year. Then, in 2017 the figure rose again and became 39.298%.1 Data obtained from the Central Statistics Agency (BPS) in February 2017, where the Women's Labor Force Participation Rate (TPAK) increased by 2.33% to 55.04% from the previous 52.71% in February 2016. Whereas in 2018 the level The labor force participation (TPAK) of female workers increased by 0.40% to 55.44%.2

The increase in the number of TPAK every year shows that currently, women are increasingly active in taking part in the world of the national economy and have the same opportunities in the field of work as men. Basically, women act as a wife or mother in the household, but it does not rule out the possibility for women to do work, this is commonly referred to as multiple roles. Women who work outside the home, who also manage the household, will cause various complicated problems and feel difficulties that will affect women's performance at work, as a result of a dual role conflict between work and family.

Conflict is defined as a conflict that occurs in a humanitarian relationship (intrapersonal or interpersonal) between one party and another in achieving a goal, conflict will arise due to differences in interests, emotions or psychology and values.3 Multiple role conflicts will affect the psychological condition of employees, and do not rule out causing stress, stress also indirectly affects employee performance and organizational goals.3 Work stress is more likely to be experienced by women because working women face conflicting roles as career women and as housewives. According to Gelsema (2015), one of the sources of work stress from a working woman is the conflict between work and family.4

Stress is the problem most often faced by every individual in completing work. Stress can be described as feeling tense, restless, or worried.3 This is in accordance with the opinion of Hans et al., (2014) which states that job stress is an organizational problem that affects the performance and growth of an organization in a competitive environment.5 Another study have found that heavy workloads, work stress, and physical hazards are the main causes of injuries to workers.6 Women who work and have a family, have different performance than women who work but are not married. If these dual roles are not handled properly, it will cause conflict and affect performance.7

Researchers are interested in examining multiple role conflicts and work stress on the work performance of female employees at BNI Makassar Regional Branch Office in 2020, because there is still a very lack of existing research on women's dual role conflict in the banking sector as well as seeing the empirical phenomena currently occurring in women who Serving two roles at the same time, being an employee as well as being a housewife, is not easy to do, and for research using these variables, especially in Makassar City, there is still very little for the BNI Makassar sector. According to Pintauli (2018) employees in the banking sector have a high enough pressure, because they must be able to achieve the targets set every period. Employees are also expected to give the best service for customers due to many other similar industries that require competition, and employees also have higher responsibilities in terms of taking care of the household. This factor is high enough to cause and exert pressure on employees.8

Based on previous research obtained the results and discussion that multiple role conflicts and workload directly have a significant impact on the work stress of female employees. The relationship between multiple role conflicts on positive work stress and the relationship between workload and positive work stress means that an increase in workload can increase work stress for female employees. Job stress directly also has a negative effect on the performance of female employees of PT. work stress increases, the performance will decrease.9 The impact of role conflicts experienced by women who work, has an impact not only on themselves, but will also affect their family and the company or institution where they work, so this needs to be addressed.10

From the various opinions above, a company that has employees with good performance is likely to have good company performance, so there is a very close relationship between individual performance and company performance. So employee performance is very important to note.11 So, this is quite a support for researchers to conduct this research.

Method

This type of research is analytic observational using a cross-sectional study design. This research was conducted at the BNI Makassar Regional Branch Office in February 2020. The total population in this study was 48 people with a sample of 48 people obtained using the exhaustive sampling method (saturated sample). Data was collected through interviews with respondents using a research instrument, namely a questionnaire that explores aspects related to the effect of multiple role conflict and work stress on women's performance. Respondents who answered the questionnaire list were female employees at the BNI Makassar Regional Branch Office in 2020. Data processing was carried out using the SPSS program and then presented in table form accompanied by explanations in narrative form. The data analysis used was univariate, bivariate, and multivariate analysis.

Results

The results of the research on univariate analysis were obtained from 48 respondents for the largest age group, namely in the 31–35 years age group, as many as 31 respondents or by 64.6%. Meanwhile, the least number of age groups was group 41–45 years and 46–50 years, namely 1 respondent or by 2.1%. Based on the level of education, the highest level of education was S1 with 39 respondents or 81.2%, while the lowest education level was D3, which was 9 respondents or 18.8%. Respondents with the highest number of children were those who had 1 child, namely 23 respondents and or 47.9%, while the least number of children was those who had 3 children, namely 3 respondents or 6.3%, and from 48 respondents, as many as 34 respondents or 70.8% who did not have other dependents, as many as 4 respondents or 8.3% who had 1 dependent and this is the least dependents (Table 1).

Table 1.

Distribution of respondents based on characteristics of female employees at BNI Makassar Regional Branch Office in 2020.

Characteristics of respondents  Amount (nPercentage (%) 
Age (years)
25–30  11  22.9% 
31–35  31  64.6% 
36–40  8.3% 
41–45  2.1% 
46–50  2.1% 
Total  48  100% 
Level of education
D3  18.8% 
S1  39  81.2% 
Total  48  100% 
Number of children
0 anak  12.5% 
1 anak  23  47.9% 
2 anak  16  33.3% 
3 anak  6.3% 
Total  48  100% 
Other dependents
0 orang  34  70.8% 
1 orang  8.3% 
2 orang  10  20.8% 
Total  48  100% 

Source: Primary Data, 2020.

As for the distribution of respondents in this study, it can be seen that of the 48 respondents, the most multiple role conflicts were in the category of experiencing multiple role conflicts, namely 26 respondents with a percentage of 54.2%, while the fewest multiple role conflicts were in the category of not experiencing role conflict. double, namely as many as 22 respondents or by 45.8%. Meanwhile, for work stress from 48 respondents, female employees who experienced mild stress were 15 respondents or a percentage of 31.3%, moderate stress was 14 respondents with a percentage of 29.2%, and the most experienced severe stress was 19 respondents or 39.6%, and those who experienced a decrease in performance were 38 respondents with a percentage of 38%, while the employees’ performance at least was in the category that did not experience a decrease in performance, namely 10 respondents or 20.8% (Table 2).

Table 2.

Distribution of respondents’ assessment of multiple role conflict, job stress, and performance female employees at BNI Makassar Regional Branch Office in 2020.

Characteristics of respondents  Amount (nPercentage (%) 
Multiple role conflict
Experiencing multiple role conflicts  26  54.2% 
Do not experience multiple role conflict  22  45.8% 
Total  48  100% 
Job stress
Mild stress  15  31.3% 
Moderate stress  14  29.2% 
Severe stress  19  39.6% 
Total  48  100% 
Employee performance
Has decreased performance  38  79.2% 
No performance degradation  10  20.8% 
Total  48  100% 

Source: Primary Data, 2020.

The bivariate analysis showed that as many as 24 respondents had multiple role conflicts and experienced a decrease in performance by a percentage (50%) and as many as 14 respondents who did not experience multiple role conflicts and experienced a decrease in performance by a percentage (29.2%) (Table 3).

Table 3.

The effect of multiple role conflict on employee performance employees at BNI Makassar Regional Branch office in 2020.

Multiple role conflict  Employee performanceTotalp-value 
  Experiencing decreased performanceDo not experiencea decrease in performanceN   
  N  N       
Experiencing multiple role conflicts  24  50%  4.2%  26  54.2%  0.029 
Do not experience multiple role conflicts  14  29.2%  16.7%  22  45.8%   
Amount  38  79.2%  10  20.8%  48  100%   

Source: Primary Data, 2020.

The bivariate analysis showed that respondents who experienced severe stress and also experienced a decrease in performance were more as many as 16 respondents or with a percentage (84.2%), compared to those who experienced mild stress and experienced a decrease in performance, namely as many as 12 respondents or by a percentage (80%) (Table 4).

Table 4.

Effect of job stress on employee performance employees at BNI Makassar Regional Branch office in 2020.

Job stress  Employee performanceTotalp-value 
  Experiencing decreased performanceDo not experience a decrease in performanceN   
  N  N       
Severe stress  16  84.2%  15.8%  19  100%  0.227 
Moderate stress  10  71.4%  28.6%  14  100%   
Mild stress  12  80.0%  20.0%  15  100%   
Amount  38  79.2%  10  20.8%  48  100%   

Source: Primary Data, 2020.

The variables analyzed were multivariate, namely, multiple role conflicts effect on the performance of female employees, job stress effect on the performance of female employees, and the influence of multiple role conflicts and work stress on employee performance with employees at the BNI Makassar Regional Office in 2020 (Table 5).

Table 5.

ANOVAa.

ModelSum of squares  DF  Mean square  F  Sig. 
Regression  1.003  0.501  3.263  0.048b 
  Residual  6.914  45  0.154     
  Total  7.917  47       

a Dependent variable: employee performance.

b Predictors: (constant), multiple role conflict, job stress.

Discussion

Multiple role conflicts occur due to pressures of work and family. If employees who are married cannot carry out the role between family and work, it will have an impact on the process of carrying out their work which is less productive so that the employees cannot function normally and become unbalanced. According to this study, it was found that there was an effect of multiple role conflicts with employee performance on employees at the BNI Makassar Regional Branch office in 2020, based on Table 3 in this study, it was found that respondents who experienced multiple role conflicts and also experienced a decrease in performance were more than 24 respondents. With a percentage (50%), compared to respondents who did not experience multiple role conflicts and experienced a decrease in performance with a percentage (29.2%) or as many as 14 respondents. In addition, other research on female workers at PT. Kusuma Sandang Mekarjaya Yogyakarta obtained consistent results that work family conflict has a negative effect on the performance of female employees.12

Job stress is something experienced by employees where they experience an imbalance between psychological and physical which can affect the processes and conditions of employees so that it has an impact on company performance.13 In the research obtained in accordance with Table 4, that respondents who experienced severe stress and also experienced a decrease in performance were more as many as 16 respondents or with a percentage (84.2%), compared to those who experienced mild stress and experienced a decrease in performance, namely 12 respondents or by a percentage (80.0%), and based on the results of the Pearson test score that there is no effect of work stress on employee performance on employees at the BNI Makassar Regional Branch office in 2020, this research is in line with research conducted in 2015 on female employees in PT Bank Rakyat Indonesia (Persero) Tbk Lumajang Branch, where the work stress experienced tends to be lower. According to Robbins (2006), one of the factors that has a close relationship with employee performance is job stress. At a certain stage, work stress will increase employee performance, but the higher the level of work stress will have an impact on employee performance.14

Employee performance can be influenced by two factors, namely multiple role conflicts and job stress. Women who are married are faced with family conflicts, which will interfere with work affairs and cause stress.15 A decrease in performance can occur due to high and moderate family conflicts that result in employees experiencing severe stress.12 Meanwhile, the results obtained indicate that the variable role conflict and work stress have an influence on the performance of female employees at the BNI Makassar Regional Office in 2020. This research is in line with research conducted at PT. Kusuma Sandang Mekarjaya Yogyakarta on female employees, where the results show that role conflict and work stress at PT. Kusuma Sandang Mekarjaya Yogyakarta has a negative effect simultaneously on the performance of female employees.12 Multiple role conflicts are not only caused by family conflict, another research has also found that work-study conflict can cause work stress.16

Women workers need special attention because they have big jobs and responsibilities at home as housewives. Companies that employ female workers should be able to view workers as assets that must be protected. Therefore, the implementation of the occupational safety and health program in the company needs to be increased because it is also a profitable investment for the company.17

Conclusions

Researchers concluded that there was an effect of dual role conflict on the performance of female employees, but there was no effect of work stress on employee performance and there was an effect of dual role conflict and work stress on the performance of female employees at the BNI Makassar Regional Office in 2020.

Conflicts of interests

The authors declare that they have no conflict of interest.

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