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Vol. 35. Issue S2.
The 3rd International Nursing and Health Sciences Students and Health Care Professionals Conference (INHSP)
Pages S459-S462 (January 2021)
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Vol. 35. Issue S2.
The 3rd International Nursing and Health Sciences Students and Health Care Professionals Conference (INHSP)
Pages S459-S462 (January 2021)
Open Access
Essential oil as a new tool for larvicidal Aedes aegypti: A systematic review
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Budimana,b,
Corresponding author
, Hasanuddin Ishakb, Stangb, Erniwati Ibrahimb, Anwar Daudb, Ridwan Amiruddinb
a Faculty of Public Health, Muhammadiyah University, Palu, Indonesia
b Faculty of Public Health, Hasanuddin University, Makassar, Indonesia
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Table 1. Summary of selected studies essential oil for larvicidal.
Abstract
Objective

The study aimed to describe the effectiveness of essential oil plants for Aedes aegypti mosquito vector control.

Methods

This systematic review selection process following with 2015 Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-Analyses (PRISMA) Guideline. The source of the articles from databases international journal were Scopus, Pubmed, Scinapse and Google Scholar.

Result

Natural control management with essential oil is the way of alternative for larvicidal mosquito control especially A. aegypti. The essential oil for many plants can use for larvicidal against A. aegypti as Piper batle L., Tinospora rhumpii, Azadiractha indica, Persea americana, Piper aduncum, Leucas aspera, Eucaliptus camaldulensis, Ottonia anisum, Salvia Plebeian, Lantana camara, and Syzygium aromaticum with 100% mortality larvae A. aegypti at 48h.

Conclusions

The vector borne diseases must be used to integrate vector management control with essential oils plants.

Keywords:
Aedes aegypti
Essential oil
Larvicidal
Mosquito
Plants
Full Text
Introduction

Diseases transmitted by vectors, in particular dengue, are a diseases that threatens public health worldwide.1 The global burden of dengue fever cases is 96 million cases per year, with a death total of 9.110 per year.2,3

Nowadays, dengue control is often carried out by chemical control which will continuously have adverse effects such as the death of non-target organisms, pollution of the environment and endangering public health. In addition, this method also costs a lot of money and can cause resistance to mosquitoes.4,5

Biological control can be an alternative to the control of vector mosquitoes by reducing the population of vector mosquitoes using natural materials. The alternative to vector control use essential oils or plants oil and extracts has been encouraged by many researchers.5 Plant essential oils can interfere the respiratory, digestive, metabolic, behavioral and psychological systems of insects, especially mosquitoes.6

Therefore, a systematic review of the literature based on a review is needed that will provide insight into the efficacy of plant essential oils as a novel means of controlling the Aedes aegypti vector.

MethodsStudy selection

This systematic review selection procees following with 2015 PRISMA/Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-Analyses Guideline.7 Literature review sources come from online searches of national and international reputable journal databases and e-books. The journal is indexed by Scopus, Pubmed, Scinapse and Google Scholar databases. Literature collected is based on topics raised in the last 10 years of publication between 2009 until 2019. Furthermore, all articles that have been collected are entered into the mendeley system. The search used keywords

  • Biolarvicidal* OR larvicidal* OR larvacidal*

  • Essential Oil* OR Extract* OR Plant Oil*

  • Aedes aegypti*

  • Mosquito*

Inclusion and exclusion criteria

The search criteria in the database, are those which (a) focused on essential oil; (b) Larvicidal; (c) Experimental Study; (d) were published during the last ten years (2009 to 2019); (e) English-language articles; (f) Open access. Exclusion criteria were (1) Review/editorial, (2) Conference proceedings, (3) Study Protocol.

Data extraction

This systematic review using the 2015 PRISMA guideline to select the articles that have been submitted. After reading the title and abstract, articles that do not match the theme will be excluded. Then the articles will be read in full text to find out the year, object, method larvicidal assay and research fundings. After collection various literature, it is then discussed with various relevant and competitive experts to be made together in a good literature review.

Quality assessment

To asses quality assessment and studies reviewed the articles was used STROBE/Strengthening the Reporting of Observational Studies in Epidemiology checklist.8 The STROBE checklist based on the 22 item but in this study used 8 quality-appraisal criteria: Objectives, Study design, Setting, Data source/measurement, Outcome data, Limitation, Interpretation and Funding (Table 1). Eligible articles are the articles that obtain the highest score in the evaluation of the quality of the article were rated as score ≤3 (poor); score 4–6 (medium); and score ≥7 (high).9

Table 1.

Summary of selected studies essential oil for larvicidal.

No.  Author, year, country  Object  Method, larvacidal assay  Assessment quality (0–8 points)  Funding 
Riesna Martianasari and Penny Humaidah Hamid, 2019, Indonesia15  Egg, Larvae and Adult  WHO Guideline/Gas chromatography–mass spectrometry (GC–MS)  High (8)  Potential use of Piper betle L. essential oil is at the concentration of 500ppm (100% mortality in 1h) 
Pedro M et al., 2014, Philipina16  Third stage larvae  WHO Guideline/Gas chromatography–mass spectrometry (GC–MS)  High (8)  Larvicidal activity to Aedes aegypti mosquito larvae of 60mg/ml (48h Jatropa curcas 61.67%, Citrus grandis 83.3%, Tinospora rhumpii 93.3%) 
Muhammad Uzair et al., 2015, Pakistan17  Third and fourth intsar larvae  WHO Guideline/Gas chromatography–mass spectrometry (GC–MS)  High (7)  Azadiractha indica oil was considered best 100% mortality after 24h at 3% and 4% concentration. 
Laura Scalvenzi et al., 2019, Italia18  Third and fourth intsar larvae  WHO Guideline/Gas chromatography–mass spectrometry (GC–MS)  High (7)  After 24h, percentage mortality franged from 2.7 (50μg/mL) to 100% for Piper aduncum; from 2.2 (250μg/mL) to 100% for Ocimum camphechianum; and from 2,9 (250μg/mL) to 100% for Ocotea quixos 
D. Elumalai, P. et al., 2017, India19  Fourth intsar larvae  WHO Guideline/Gas chromatography–mass spectrometry (GC–MS)  High (8)  After 24h, methanol extract of Leucas aspera showed mortality against A. aegypti untl 100% at 80ppm and more potent 
Sen-Sung Cheng et al, 2009, Taiwan20  Fourth intsar larvae  WHO Guideline/Gas chromatography–mass spectrometry (GC–MS)  High (7)  Eucalyptus camaldulensis leaf essential oil against A. aegypti in concentration 100% larval mortality at 100μg/ml and concentration 200μg/ml Eucalyptus urophylla at 24
André M. Marques et al., 2017, Brazil21  Third stage larvae  WHO Guideline/Gas chromatography–mass spectrometry (GC–MS)  High (7)  Concentration tested until 200μg/ml (30μg/ml), the L3 larval mortality was 100%, 24h after treatment 
Ivoke, N. and Odii, E. C, 2010, Nigeria22  Third stage larvae  WHO Guideline/Gas chromatography–mass spectrometry (GC–MS)  High (7)  Essential oil of Lantana camara against early third stage larvae of A. aegypti, 100% mortality was recorded at 50mg/l concentration and leveled off thereafter 
Nwankwo, E. N. et al., 2011, Nigeria23  Third stage larvae  WHO Guideline/Gas chromatography–mass spectrometry (GC–MS)  High (7)  Mortality increased with increasing concentration. 95% larval mortality against A. aegypti in 12h with concentration 95μg/ml 
10  Alzeir Machado Rodrigues et al., 2018, Brazil24  Third and fourth instars of A. aegypti  WHO Guideline/Gas chromatography–mass spectrometry (GC–MS)  High (7)  Essential oil of Syzigium aromaticum were 32.7ppm and Croton nepetaefolius 81.7ppm after 24h was found 50% larval mortality (LC50) 
11  Kehinde Adenike Fayemiwo et al., 2014, Nigeria25  Third stage larvae  WHO Guideline/Gas chromatography–mass spectrometry (GC–MS)  High (8)  After 24h was found over 85% larval mortality. Syzigium aromaticum were more susceptible against A. aegypti LC50 at 92,56mg/ml and pinus sylvestris 128mg/ml 
12  Adriana Faraco et al., 2016, Brazil26  Third stage larvae  WHO Guideline/Gas chromatography–mass spectrometry (GC–MS)  High (7)  All tested species was found laricidal effects in Syzigium aromaticum and Citrus sinensis but not recommended for combination with temephos 
13  Eunice da S. Medeiros et al., 2012, Brazil12  Third stage larvae  WHO Guideline/Gas chromatography–mass spectrometry (GC–MS)  High (7)  For A. aegypti larvae, the highest mortality rate occurred within 24h in the aqueous extract. Eugenol exhibited the highest motality rate on A. aegypti larvae at 48
Result

The total of journal is 7112 articles were referred from the four data bases. After articles removing are 747 articles, articles abstract is reviewed after reading titles (not mosquito) is 157 articles. At last, 36 articles full-text reviewed and excluded is 20 articles. As many as 3 articles included after reading reference from manual search. Finally a total of 13 articles (Fig. 1).

Fig. 1.

Flow chart articles based on 2015 PRISMA guideline.7

(0.29MB).

Various efforts have been made to prevent the emergence of mosquito resistance to certain chemicals.10,11 Therefore, a more environmentally friendly, effective, efficient and safe way to control health is needed. Biological control can be an alternative in the fight against vector mosquitoes by reducing the populations of vector mosquitoes and by using natural materials.5

One of the alternatives that can be used in mosquito vector control began to be encouraged by researchers. Essential oils from plants can damage with respiratory, digestive, metabolic, behavioral and psychological of insects especially mosquitoes.6,12

The essential oil for many plants can use for larvicidal against A. aegypti as Piper batle L., Tinospora rhumpii, Azadiractha indica, Persea americana, Piper aduncum, Leucas aspera, Eucaliptus camaldulensis, Ottonia anisum, Salvia Plebeian, Lantana camara, and Syzygium aromaticum with 100% mortality larvae A. aegypti at 48h.

Discussion

Various researches from experts regarding the ability of essential oils to kill mosquito vectors have encouraged further exploration of the possibility of using essential oils from certain plants as an alternative step in controlling diseases transmitted by mosquito vectors. The chemical compound content of essential oils that have been studied from various types of plants shows that locally sourced plant chemical content is more effective than previous research reports but with slight variations. Factors that cause different variations are usually associated with the differences and similarities in the chemotype of each species observed. In addition, the influence of environmental differences also affects the development and physiology of these species.12,13

The results showed that essential oils from various plants have toxic substances for mosquito larvae so that they can kill mosquito larvae with an average mortality rate of more than 85% for 24h and a mortality rate of 100% mosquito larvae for 48h although there is no significant difference in giving concentration levels of the plant's essential oil. Many plants have been believed to have a high biological ability to fight pathogenic microorganisms and insect pests. The difference in the level of essential oil toxicity is probably caused by differences in the variation in the content of chemical compounds that will determine the plant's ability to kill mosquito larvae.13,14

The content of the main chemical compounds of essential oils plant has been widely used as a formula in the management of pest and insect pathogen control because it is known to have high toxic and antimicrobial and insecticidal properties. The difference in resistance levels and insecticide susceptibility of various insect vectors, especially mosquitoes, can be caused by various factors including differences in physiological and biochemical processes of the insects themselves.12,14

Conclusion

This literature review concludes that essential oils from several plants have the potential to kill mosquito vectors so that this local essential oil can be used as a new way of managing mosquito vector control, especially in dengue hemorrhagic fever endemic areas and remote areas that are difficult to access by health facilities.12–14

Conflicts of interest

The authors declare no conflict of interest.

Acknowledgments

This literature review is one of the requirements in taking doctoral studies in Faculty of Public Health Hasanuddin University Indonesia. First author was presented at International Conference on Safety and Public Health (ICOS-PH, 2020) “Global Collaboration for Safety and Public Health” Makassar, Sept 3rd – 4th 2020.

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