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Vol. 35. Issue S2.
The 3rd International Nursing and Health Sciences Students and Health Care Professionals Conference (INHSP)
Pages S428-S431 (January 2021)
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Vol. 35. Issue S2.
The 3rd International Nursing and Health Sciences Students and Health Care Professionals Conference (INHSP)
Pages S428-S431 (January 2021)
Open Access
The determinant of work stress on bank employees in Makassar, Indonesia
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Masyitha Muisa,
Corresponding author
, Atjo Wahyua, Fatmawaty Mallapiangb, A. Muflihah Darwisa, Yahya Thamrina, Nurul Rezkiaha
a Department of Occupational Safety and Health, Faculty of Public Health, Hasanuddin University, Makassar 90245, Indonesia
b Department of Public Health, Faculty of Medicine and Health Sciences, Universitas Islam Negeri Alauddin, Makassar 92113, Indonesia
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Tables (6)
Table 1. Distribution of respondents based on the characteristics of permanent employees at BNI Makassar Regional Branch Office in 2020.
Table 2. The relationship between workload and work stress on employees at BNI Makassar Regional Branch Office in 2020.
Table 3. The relationship between gender and work stress in employees at the BNI Makassar Branch Office in 2020.
Table 4. The relationship between marital status and work stress in employees at BNI Makassar Branch Office in 2020.
Table 5. The relationship between working period and work stress in employees at the BNI Makassar Branch Office in 2020.
Table 6. The relationship between length of work with work stress in employees at the BNI Makassar Branch Office in 2020.
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Abstract
Objective

The purpose of this study was to determine the factors associated with work stress on employees at the BNI Makassar Branch Office.

Methods

This study used a cross-sectional research design. The sample was taken using a simple random sampling technique. The data were processed using the SPSS program, the results of which were presented in tables and narrative form.

Result

The results showed that the variable work stress relationship with the workload and gender variables of the employees at the BNI Makassar Regional Office. And there is no stress on the work relationship with the variables of marital status, years of service, and length of work for employees at the BNI Makassar Regional Branch Office.

Conclusion

Workload and gender have a significant relationship with work stress. The suggestions for minimizing the level of work stress with stress management.

Keywords:
Bank employee
Work stress
Workload
Full Text
Introduction

The driving force of organizational life comes from the role and each employee was to achieve the goals of the company. If employees are known to have a burden of problems that can hinder company performance, the leadership can immediately resolve the employee's burden, especially those that must be managed in a sustainable manner, namely regarding work stress. Demands and duties that are destructive and destructive to employees. Apart from organization and work, secrets from organizations such as family or social environment also cause pressure on employees. If this pressure continues to occur on employees, it will cause work stress on employees.1

Statistically, the Health and Safety Executive estimates that the number of incidents of incidence and work stress in 2015–2016 among workers in the UK was 488,000 cases with a prevalence of 1510 per 100,000 workers. Of all health cases, stress accounts for 37% and 45% of all days due to health problems of workers.2 Meanwhile, according to AIS (American Institute of Stress) data, losses caused by work stress are not small. Every year the industry in the United States experiences a loss of US$300 billion due to accidents, absences, employee turnover, and compensation due to work stress served by employees.3 Regus Asia, when conducting a survey, stated that 64% of workers in Indonesia experienced increased stress in 2015. It is estimated that 1.6% of Jambi residents experience mental emotional disorders. Work-related health problems that result in an economic loss of 4–6% of the Gross Domestic Product in most countries.4

Job stress is a stressful condition that can cause physical and psychological imbalance which affects the thinking and emotional processes of employees, stress can also cause injuries to workers.5,6 The factors that cause work stress can be seen from external factors and internal factors. External factors include work environment conditions, workload, role conflicts, career development, work relationships, workplace organization demands from outside the organization. Meanwhile, internal factors consist of age, gender, nutritional status, health conditions, personality, skills, values, and needs.

In an effort to provide the best service to every customer, bank employees may experience job stress in their work. Employees in the banking sector are employees who work under pressure from the leadership, with a high level of discipline, so that employees do not have the opportunity to relax at work. On the other hand, there is high work pressure in providing services to customers and also some of the demands given by employees, such as increased service from customers, and zero error in work. Employees in completing their work, and especially for tellers, they are required to work extra because each customer has different demands in getting maximum service.7

According to previous research conducted by Satrio Budi Prakosa Rachman in 2017 entitled ‘Determinant Factors of Work Stress in Production Workers at PT Indogravure in 2017’, shows that several factors are statistically related to work stress. The company's ability to generate profits is reflected in the level of profitability in a certain period and of course also supported by the success of its employees in managing their work. This condition makes employees in the bank sector very interesting to study.

Methods

This type is an analytic observation with a cross-sectional study approach, where the researcher only conducts research and measures variables at that time or only once at a time. This research took place at the BNI Makassar Branch Office and was carried out in March–August 2020. The population of this study was 155 of all permanent employees of the BNI Makassar Branch Office. A sample of 58 was determined using the Lameshow formula. The sampling technique uses simple random sampling, which is random sampling so that the entire population has the same opportunity to be selected for sampling. Data obtained from respondents using a questionnaire. Then the data is processed using the SPSS program, the results of which are presented in tables and narrative form.

Result

The characteristics of the research respondents: (Table 1).

Table 1.

Distribution of respondents based on the characteristics of permanent employees at BNI Makassar Regional Branch Office in 2020.

Respondent Characteristics  Amount (nPercentage (%) 
Age group
25–30 years  14  24.1% 
31–35 years  39  67.2% 
36–40 years  8.7% 
Gender
Male  12  20.7% 
Female  46  79.3% 
Marital status
Married  50  86.2% 
Single  13.8% 
Working period
Long  44  75.9% 
New  14  24.1% 
Length of work
Not eligible  42  72.4% 
Qualify  16  27.6% 
Workload
Weight  18  31% 
Light  40  69% 
Work stress
Severe  31  53.4% 
Moderate  15.5% 
Light  18  31% 
Total  58  100% 

Source: Primary Data, 2020.

The results of the bivariate analysis between mental workload and work stress on permanent employees at BNI Makassar Branch, using the Pearson test analysis obtained a value (p value=0.001), because p value<0.05, so that Ho is rejected and Ha accepted. This means that there is a relationship between workload and work stress on employees at the BNI Makassar Branch Office in 2020 (Table 2).

Table 2.

The relationship between workload and work stress on employees at BNI Makassar Regional Branch Office in 2020.

Workload  Work stressTotalStatistical test results 
  WeightModerateLight     
  n  n  n  n   
Weight  15  83.3  11.1  5.6  18  100  ρ=0.001 
Light  16  40.0  17.5  17  42.5  40  100   
Amount  31  53.4  15.5  18  31.0  58  100   

Source: Primary Data, 2020.

The results of the bivariate analysis between sex and work stress from the number of respondents 58 employees, using the Pearson test analysis obtained a value (p value=0.004), because p value>0.05, so that Ho is rejected and Ha accepted. It is interpreted that there is a gender relationship with work stress on employees at the BNI Makassar Regional Branch office (Table 3).

Table 3.

The relationship between gender and work stress in employees at the BNI Makassar Branch Office in 2020.

Gender  Work stressTotalStatistical test results 
  WeightModerateLight     
  n  n  n  n   
Male  58.3  16.7  25  12  100  ρ=0.004 
Female  24  52.2  15.2  15  32.6  46  100   
Amount  31  53.4  15.5  18  31  58  100   

Source: Primary Data, 2020.

The results of the bivariate analysis between marital status and work stress from the number of respondents 58 employees, using the Pearson test analysis obtained a value (p value=0.240), because the p value>0.05, so that Ho was accepted and Ha rejected. This means that there is no relationship between marital status and work stress on employees at BNI Makassar Branch Office (Table 4).

Table 4.

The relationship between marital status and work stress in employees at BNI Makassar Branch Office in 2020.

Marital status  Work stressTotalStatistical test results 
  WeightModerateLight     
  n  n  n  n   
Married  29  58  12  15  30  50  100  ρ=0.240 
Single  25  37.5  37.5  100   
Amount  31  53.4  15.5  18  31  58  100   

Source: Primary Data, 2020.

The results of the bivariate analysis between tenure and work stress from the number of respondents 58 employees, using the Pearson test analysis obtained a value (p value=0.288), because the p value>0.05, so that Ho was accepted and Ha rejected. This means that there is no relationship between tenure and work stress on employees at the BNI Makassar Regional Branch Office (Table 5).

Table 5.

The relationship between working period and work stress in employees at the BNI Makassar Branch Office in 2020.

Working period  Work stressTotalStatistical test results 
  WeigthModerateLight     
  n  n  n  n   
Long  25  56.8  15.9  12  27.3  44  100  ρ=0.288 
New  42.9  14.3  42.9  14  100   
Amount  31  53.4  15.5  18  31  58  100   

Source: Primary Data, 2020.

The results of the bivariate analysis between length of work and work stress of 58 respondents, using the Pearson test analysis obtained a value (p value=0.850), because the p value>0.05, so that Ho was accepted and Ha rejected. The interpretation is that there is no relationship between length of work and work stress on employees at the BNI Makassar Regional Branch office (Table 6).

Table 6.

The relationship between length of work with work stress in employees at the BNI Makassar Branch Office in 2020.

Length of work  Work stressTotalStatistical test results 
  WeightModerateLight     
  n  n  n  n   
Not eligible  22  52.4  19  12  28.6  42  100  ρ=0.850 
Qualified  56.3  6.3  37.5  16  100   
Amount  31  53.4  15.5  18  31  58  100   

Source: Primary Data, 2020.

Discussion

The bivariate analysis between workload and work stress on employees at BNI Makassar Regional Branch shows that there is a relationship between workload and work stress on employees at BNI Makassar Branch Offices. This is in line with the research conducted by Christy in 2020 entitled “Relationship of Working Load With Work Stress In Nurses In Inventories In Islamic Hospital Surabaya A. Yan” which shows that there is a relationship between workload and work stress on employees.8 The things that cause employees to experience workload are the weight of the responsibilities they receive, the level of difficulty in carrying out their duties and the employees must work with skills to do their jobs. Excessive workload (overload) that is not immediately resolved will have the potential to become a source of work stress for employees, both at heavy and light levels, this depends on each individual in responding to each workload they receive. Therefore, for managers including the employees themselves, special tips are needed so that stress does not cause negative things, thank God this can affect the company's performance improvement. One of stress management through organizational strategy can be done by changing the function and structure of the organization or making changes to certain jobs so that employees do not do the same job for a long time so that employees do not get bored and feel new challenges.

The bivariate results between sex and work stress on employees at the BNI Makassar Regional Branch showed that there was a statistically significant relationship between sex and work stress on employees at the BNI Makassar Regional Branch Office. This is in line with research conducted by Fitri (2013) which means that there is a relationship between Gender and Work Stress. This may be due to gender differences that do not make a big contribution to work stress when compared to gender differences.9 The gender differences referred to here are differences in the psychological conditions of individuals who are differentiated into masculine and feminine. In this study, it was stated that the relationship between work stress levels and gender differences had a more significant value than the relationship between work stress levels and gender differences.

The bivariate results between marital status and work stress on employees at the BNI Makassar Regional Branch Office showed that there was no statistically significant relationship between marital status and work stress for employees at the BNI Makassar Regional Branch Office, which states that there is no significant relationship between marital status and work stress on employees in the Laundry Installation Unit. Furthermore, Raj (2015) from the results of his research explained that marital status is not related to work stress. The research was conducted on nursing staff who work in the critical care unit at Trivandrum Kerala hospital.10 Marital status is one of the individual factors that can cause work stress, but in this study, work stress is not influenced by marital status because they can adjust themselves. Both in the family environment and at work, so that family matters are not carried over to the workplace.

The bivariate results between tenure and work stress for employees at the BNI Makassar Regional Branch Office showed that there was no statistically significant relationship between tenure and work stress for employees at the BNI Makassar Regional Office. This study does not have a relationship between work tenure and work stress, this is because employees who have both a new and long work period can experience severe stress. The new work period can be stressful because they cannot master the demands of the work being carried out, while the old work period can also be stressful due to monotonous work that is carried out continuously from year to year. Research that is not in line with this research is wiryanti's research (2018) which states that there is a relationship between work tenure and work stress on Weaving section workers of PT. Kosoema Nanda Putra.11 The impact that occurs on respondents is not always the same, this is because each respondent has their own way of solving problems that exist within themselves. Minimizing the occurrence of work stress caused by the working period, including workers can make the best use of rest time so that the body becomes fresher, practices relaxation techniques, and prepares themselves physically and mentally before working so that workers are able to face job demands.

The bivariate results between the length of work and work stress on employees in BNI Makassar Regional Branches show that there is no statistically significant relationship between the length of work and work stress for employees at the BNI Makassar Regional Branch Office. Length of work is one of the factors that can cause work stress, but in this study, work stress has no effect, because they can adjust themselves to the working hours received so that employees can complete tasks properly without rushed work demands and task demands. The number of efficient working hours for a week is 40–80h divided into five or six working days, the maximum of additional efficient work time is 30min. If the working hours exceed these provisions, things such as decreased work speed, health problems, increased absenteeism due to illness will be found, thereby increasing the level of work stress.

Conclusion

As for the research variables from the analysis of the variables studied about the determinants of work stress on employees at the BNI Makassar Regional Branch, it can be shown the variable work stress relationship with the workload and gender variables of the employees at the BNI Makassar Regional Office. And there is no stress on the work relationship with the variables of marital status, years of service, and length of work for employees at the BNI Makassar Regional Branch Office.

Conflicts of interest

The authors declare no conflict of interest.

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Peer-review under responsibility of the scientific committee of the 3rd International Nursing, Health Science Students & Health Care Professionals Conference. Full-text and the content of it is under responsibility of authors of the article.

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