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Vol. 20. Núm. S2.
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Vol. 20. Núm. S2.
Revisiones en salud pública
Páginas 1-9 (Diciembre 2006)
DOI: 10.1157/13101084
Open Access
Medida de contaminantes del agua y usos del agua durante el embarazo en un estudio de cohortes en España
Measurement of drinking water contaminants and water use activities during pregnancy in a cohort study in Spain
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Cristina M. Villanuevaa,??
Autor para correspondencia
cvillanueva@imim.es

Correspondencia: Cristina Villanueva Belmonte. CREAL-IMIM. Parc de Recerca Biomédica de Barcelona. Doctor Aiguader, 88. 08003 Barcelona. España.
, Joan O. Grimaltb, Ferran Ballesterc, Jesús Ibarluzead, Maria Salae, Adonina Tardónf, Elena Romero-Aliagag, Marieta Fernándezh, Núria Ribas-Fitóa, Manolis Kogevinasa
a Centre de Recerca en Epidemiologia Ambiental (CREAL). Institut Municipal d’Investigació Mèdica (IMIM). Barcelona. España
b Institut d’Investigacions Químiques i Ambientals. CSIC. Barcelona. España
c Escola Valenciana d’Estudis en Salut (EVES). Valencia. España
d Subdirección de Salud Pública de Guipúzcoa. San Sebastián. España
e Ayuntamiento de Sabadell. Sabadell. España
f Universidad de Oviedo. Oviedo. España
g Departamento de Salud Pública. UMH. Alicante. España
h Hospital Universitario San Cecilio. Granada. España
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Información del artículo
Resumen
Objetivos

La evidencia que hay no permite establecer causalidad entre la exposición a subproductos de la cloración (SPC) durante la gestación y los efectos reproductivos. Los trihalometanos, uno de los subproductos de la cloración, son muy prevalentes en algunas zonas españolas. En el marco del estudio INMA (INfancia y Medio Ambiente) se describe: 1) los hábitos personales de uso y consumo de agua, y 2) el valor de trihalometanos en el agua de las zonas de estudio.

Métodos

Estudio de cohortes de seguimiento de mujeres embarazadas en Valencia (n=800), Sabadell (n=800), País Vasco (n=600), Asturias (n=500) y Granada (n=700). Con entrevistas en el tercer trimestre del embarazo se obtiene información personal acerca del origen y cantidad de agua consumida, frecuencia de ducha, baño y asistencia a piscinas. Se toman muestras de agua para analizar los trihalometanos.

Resultados

El origen del agua consumida dentro y fuera de casa es la embotellada (el 82 y el 94%, respectivamente). El agua para cocinar es principalmente municipal (91%). El 98,2% de las mujeres embarazadas toman preferentemente duchas 6,8 veces/semana durante 11,7min. Un 58,5% de las mujeres se bañan en piscinas durante el embarazo, en promedio 9,4 veces/mes en piscinas descubiertas en verano y 3,1 veces/mes en cubiertas el resto del año, durante 32,6 y 21,7min, respectivamente. Los valores medios de trihalometanos oscilan entre 4g/l en la provincia de Granada y 117g/l en Sabadell.

Conclusión

Los resultados provisionales sugieren que las principales vías de exposición a trihalometanos durante el embarazo son la absorción dérmica y la inhalación, y la ingestion es una vía poco relevante.

Palabras clave:
Exposición ambiental
Agua
Desinfección
Piscinas
Trihalometanos
Efectos sobre el embarazo
Peso bajo al nacer
Abstract
Objectives

Exposure to chlorination by-products during pregnancy has been associated with reproductive outcomes but the evidence remains inconclusive. Levels of trihalomethanes, the most prevalent chlorination by-products, are high in some areas of Spain. Within the framework of a follow-up study in pregnant women, we describe: 1) the personal habits of water use and consumption, and 2) trihalomethane levels in the drinking water of the study areas.

Methods

We performed a follow-up cohort study in pregnant women in Valencia (n=800), Sabadell (n=800), the Basque Country (n=600), Asturias (n=500), and Granada (n=700). Interviews were conducted in the third trimester of pregnancy to obtain individual information on the sources and amounts of drinking water, and on the frequency of showering, bathing, and swimming pool attendance. Water samples were collected to analyze trihalomethane levels.

Results

The main source of drinking water was bottled water, both inside and outside the home (82% and 94% of the women, respectively). Drinking water for cooking was mainly municipal (91%). Women preferred to take showers (98.2%) and did so, on average, 6.8 times/week for 11.7 minutes. A total of 58.5% of the women went to swimming pools during pregnancy, on average 9.4 times/month to outdoor swimming pools in the summer and 3.1 times/month the rest of the year for 32.6 and 21.7 minutes, respectively. Average trihalomethane levels ranged from 4 g/l in the province of Granada to 117 g/l in Sabadell.

Conclusion

These preliminary results suggest that the main routes of trihalomethane exposure during pregnancy are dermal absorption and inhalation. Ingestion is a minor exposure route.

Key words:
Environmental exposure
Water
Disinfection
Swimming pools
Trihalomethanes
Pregnancy outcomes
Low birth weight
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